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Ingestion of dug well water from an area with high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) and development of kidney and liver lesions in rats

Authors:

M G Thammitiyagodage ,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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M M Gunatillaka,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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N Ekanayaka,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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C Rathnayake,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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N U Horadagoda,

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya, LK
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R Jayathissa,

Regional Epidemiology Unit, Polonnaruwa, LK
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U K Gunaratne,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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W G Kumara,

Medical Research Institute, LK
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P Abeynayake

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Peradeniya
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Abstract

Introduction Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) is prevalent in the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka and ingestion of dug well water is considered a potential causative factor. Three CKDu prevalent villages were selected from the NCP based on the number of CKDu patients in the locality.

Methods Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups with 10 rats each. Group No 1, 2 and 3 were given water from selected dug wells. Control group was given tap water from Colombo. Water samples were analysed for fluoride, iron, arsenic, cadmium and calcium. Histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues were performed.

Results Significant reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was observed in two test groups compared to the control group (p≤0.05).  In one group hepatocellular carcinoma with elevated serum liver enzymes was observed whilst hepatitis was observed in another test group (p<0.05).But mixed lesions were common in all affected rats. Significantly high renal tubular lesion index was observed in all three experimental groups (p<0.05) and high glomerular lesion index (p=0.017) was observed in one test group. Cadmium, arsenic and iron contents were below detectable levels in the NCP water sources and tap water from Colombo.

Conclusions Different wells may have different concentrations of environmental toxins and depending on the severity of the toxin contents GFR and grade and type of liver and kidney lesions may vary. High fluoride and other undetected toxins in shallow dug wells may be the causative factors for renal and liver lesions in these Wistar rats.   

DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v62i1.8428
How to Cite: Thammitiyagodage, M.G. et al., (2017). Ingestion of dug well water from an area with high prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) and development of kidney and liver lesions in rats. Ceylon Medical Journal. 62(1), pp.20–24. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v62i1.8428
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Published on 30 Mar 2017.
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