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Resistance and utilisation pattern of antibacterial agents in outpatient settings in two Teaching Hospitals in Colombo

Authors:

G P S G Senadheera ,

Department of Allied Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura and Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, LK
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S Sri Ranganathan,

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, LK
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G Patabendige,

Department of Microbiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, LK
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G H Fernando,

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, LK
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D Gamage,

Department of Microbiology, National Hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, LK
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R M W Maneke,

Department of Microbiology, Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila, LK
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B M R Fernandopulle

Department of Para clinical, General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University, Ratmalana, LK
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Abstract

Objectives Antibacterial resistance (ABR) is a public threat. Sri Lanka is a country with limited surveillance of ABR in the community. The WHO methodology was adapted to identify ABR in outpatient settings (nonhospitalised patients) and its link to consumption of antibiotics.

 

Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive community based study to collect ABR data from Out Patient Department (OPD) of two leading Teaching Hospitals in Colombo district. The indicator organism Escherichia coli (E. coli) was obtained from the urine specimens of patients who were suspected to have urinary tract infections. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed for commonly used oral antibiotics using disc diffusion method. The antibiotic consumption aggregate data were collected from the OPD pharmacies of the said hospitals and expressed as Defined Daily Doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per 1000 day.

 

Results Of the 2183 urine samples, pathogenic E. coli was isolated in 9.3% (204), and 8% (n=16) of them were Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) producers. E.coli was most resistant to ampicillin (85%), followed by nalidixic acid (58.5%), trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole (47.1%), ciprofloxacin (46.2%), norfloxacin (43.7%) amoxicillin /clavulanic acid (36.3%) and nitrofurantoin (15%). Multi-drug resistance was seen in 44%. Amoxicillin was the most frequently consumed antibacterial agent (2.65 DDD per 1000 inhabitants per day).

 

Conclusions There is an alarmingly high antibiotic resistance in the non-hospitalised patients indicating high prevalence of E. coli resistance in the community.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v61i3.8346
How to Cite: Senadheera, G.P.S.G., Sri Ranganathan, S., Patabendige, G., Fernando, G.H., Gamage, D., Maneke, R.M.W. and Fernandopulle, B.M.R., 2016. Resistance and utilisation pattern of antibacterial agents in outpatient settings in two Teaching Hospitals in Colombo. Ceylon Medical Journal, 61(3), pp.113–117. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v61i3.8346
Published on 03 Oct 2016.
Peer Reviewed

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