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Novel urinary biomarkers and their association with urinary heavy metals in chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: a pilot study

Authors:

K Wanigasuriya ,

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Gangodawilla, Nugegoda, LK
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I Jayawardene,

Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, USA and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, US
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C Amarasiriwardena,

Harvard School of Public Health, 665 Huntington Avenue, Boston, USA and Channing Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 181 Longwood Avenue, Boston, US
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R Wickremasinghe

Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, LK
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Abstract

Introduction Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant public health problem in Sri Lanka. The role of environmental exposure to cadmium and arsenic in the aetiology of CKDu is still unclear. Identification of a panel of novel urinary biomarkers would be invaluable in the study of toxin mediated damage postulated to be the aetiology of CKDu.

Objectives The aims of this study were to evaluate the profile of novel urinary biomarkers in CKDu patients and identify any association with environmental exposure to heavy metals.

Methods Thirty seven randomly selected CKDu patients attending a renal clinic in the North Central Province and two control groups namely a farmer group (n=39) and a non-farmer group (n=40) from a non-endemic area were included in this comparative cross sectional study. Urine samples were analyzed for heavy metals and five urinary biomarkers.

Results CKDu patients had significantly elevated urinary levels of fibrinogen (198.2 ng/mg creatinine p<0.001), clusterin (3479 ng/mg creatinine p<0.001), cystatin-C (5124.8 ng/mg creatinine p<0.001) and β2-microglobulin (9913.4 ng/mg creatinine p<0.001) compared to the control groups. Fibrinogen and β2-microglobulin were the best to discriminate CKDu patients from normal individuals with the receiver operator areas under the curve being 0.867 and 0.853, respectively. Urinary fibrinogen and KIM-1 levels correlated positively with urinary arsenic levels. KIM-1 levels correlated positively with urinary mercury and lead levels but no correlation was seen with urinary cadmium levels.

Conclusions Fibrinogen and β2-microglobulin have the potential of being a screening tool for detection of CKDu and may aid the early diagnosis of toxin mediated tubular injury in CKDu. Their usefulness need to be further validated in a larger epidemiological study of patients with early stages

DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v62i4.8568
How to Cite: Wanigasuriya, K. et al., (2017). Novel urinary biomarkers and their association with urinary heavy metals in chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology in Sri Lanka: a pilot study. Ceylon Medical Journal. 62(4), pp.210–217. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v62i4.8568
Published on 29 Dec 2017.
Peer Reviewed

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