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Undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia in an overweight or obese population: implications for cardiovascular disease risk screening programme

Authors:

Upul Senarath ,

University of Colombo, LK
About Upul
Department  of  Community  Medicine,  Faculty  of Medicine
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prasad Katulanda,

University of Colombo, LK
About prasad
Department  of  Clinical  Medicine,  Faculty  of  Medicine
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Dulitha Fernando,

University of Colombo, LK
About Dulitha
Department  of  Community  Medicine,  Faculty  of Medicine
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Nishan Sudheera Kalupahana,

University of Peradeniya, LK
About Nishan Sudheera
Department  of  Physiology,  Faculty  o f  Medicine
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Kunarathinam Partheepan,

University of Colombo, LK
About Kunarathinam
Department  of  Community  Medicine,  Faculty  of Medicine
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Gaya Katulanda,

National Hospital, LK
About Gaya
Department  of  Pathology
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Michael Dibley

The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia, AU
About Michael
The  Sydney  School  of  Public  Health,  Faculty  of  Medicine  and  Health,  The University  of  Sydney,
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Abstract

Introduction: Establishing the burden of undiagnosed CVD risk factors is critical to monitoring public health efforts related to screening and diagnosis.

 

Objective: To assess the proportion and determinants of undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia, among overweight or obese adults.

 

Methods: A sample of 1200 participants aged 35-64 years with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2 was selected from the Colombo district. Data were collected through a questionnaire, anthropometry, blood pressure measurement, and blood sampling for fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and lipid profile. Undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia were defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL or HbA1c ≥6.5%; systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg; total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl respectively, in a person without a previous diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out to identify determinants.

 

Results: The prevalence (95%CI) of diabetes was 28.0% (25.5, 30.5), hypertension, 33.4% (30.7, 36.1) and hypercholesterolaemia, 31.9% (29.2, 34.5). The proportion of undiagnosed diabetes was 13.8% (11.9, 15.8), undiagnosed hypertension 11.3% (9.5, 13.1), and undiagnosed hypercholesterolaemia 17.8% (15.6, 19.9). Undiagnosed cases accounted for almost half of all diabetes cases, one-third of all hypertension cases, and more than half (56%) of all high cholesterol cases. The key determinants for undiagnosed CVD risk were: male sex, low or middle income, rural residence, and relatively younger age.

 

Conclusion: CVD screening programmes should be tailored to target populations based on these determinants and provide basic diagnostic facilities in all health centres. The ‘proportion undiagnosed’ in the population may be a useful indicator to evaluate their effectiveness.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v65i3.9185
How to Cite: Senarath, U., Katulanda, . prasad ., Fernando, D., Kalupahana, N.S., Partheepan, K., Katulanda, G. and Dibley, M., 2020. Undiagnosed diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolaemia in an overweight or obese population: implications for cardiovascular disease risk screening programme. Ceylon Medical Journal, 65(3), pp.46–55. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v65i3.9185
Published on 10 Nov 2020.
Peer Reviewed

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