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Current practices in the management of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka - A clinical audit

Authors:

Ishani Rajapakshe ,

National hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, LK
About Ishani
Institute of Neurology
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Thishakya Wickramaratne,

National hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo
About Thishakya
Institute of Neurology
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Chulika Makawita,

National hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, LK
About Chulika
Institute of Neurology
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Ravindra Sudath,

National hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo, LK
About Ravindra
Institute of Neurology
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Bimsara Senanayaka

National hospital of Sri Lanka, Colombo
About Bimsara
Institute of Neurology
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Spontaneous, nontraumatic intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) is the second most common cause of stroke after acute ischemia. However, it causes significant mortality and morbidity and has comparatively worse outcomes. Most studies show that ICH when treated with good medical care has lower mortality. Our primary aim was to evaluate how ICH is currently managed at the National hospital of Sri Lanka (NHSL), the premier tertiary care hospital in the country, whilst identifying strengths, weaknesses and deficien-cies. We plan to develop a comprehensive management protocol for ICH patients and to re-evaluate the treatment practices after applying them. NHSL is a research centre for the international, multicenter INTERACT2 trial, which emphasizes intensive blood pressure, blood sugar and temperature control and managing coagulopathy in ICH leading to better outcomes. We are recruiting new ICH cases to this trial.


Methodology: The prospective standard audit was conducted at NHSL for a period of 3 months and the study population consisted of 76 patients with spontaneous ICH. The 2015 AHA/ASA guideline for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage was used as the standard guide for the management.


Results: Of 76 patients with ICH 46 (60.5%) were males and mean age was 61.3+- 12.6 years. The blood pressure (BP) and blood sugar control was achieved only in 51.3% (39) and 15.8% (12) respectively. Although prophylactic anti-epileptics are not recommended in ICH almost 70% were started on them, in spite of only 15.8% having overt convulsions. Steroids though not recommended to lower intracranial pressure in ICH 51% were on them. Of those ICH admitted to medical and neurology wards 81% were referred to neurosurgery irrespective of the location and the nature of the bleed and when not indicated (based on AHA/ASA guidelines) delaying and interfering with optimal medical care.


Conclusions:  Several deficiencies were identified in the current management routines of ICH at NHSL including delayed, suboptimal medical care, unnecessary widespread use of AEDs and steroids. Large majority of neurosurgical referrals too were unnecessary and not indicated.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v67i1.9559
How to Cite: Rajapakshe, I., Wickramaratne, T., Makawita, C., Sudath, R. and Senanayaka, B., 2022. Current practices in the management of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka - A clinical audit. Ceylon Medical Journal, 67(1), pp.28–32. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/cmj.v67i1.9559
Published on 31 Mar 2022.
Peer Reviewed

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